Types of Hair Loss 

The medical term used to describe ANY type of hair loss is ALOPECIA.  There are many types of alopecia, and the most common types of hair loss (alopecia) are listed below.

 

  • Androgenetic Alopecia or Genetic Hair Loss
  • Alopecia Areata
  • Alopecia Capitis Totalis
  • Alopecia Universalis
  • Cicatricial Alopecia or Scarring Alopecia
  • Moth-Eaten Alopecia or Syphilitic Alopecia
  • Symptomatic Alopecia
  • Trichotillomania
  • Congenital Alopecia
  • Congenital Hypotrichosis
  • Congenital Atrichia

Please scroll down to find more detailed information about this type of hair

Name:  Androgenetic alopecia

Description: Inherited hair loss commonly known as Male Pattern Hair Loss and Female Pattern Hair Loss.

Cause:  

* increasing age

* Genetics

* Illness

* Some medications like chemotherapy (drugs for cancer treatment)

* Malnutrition

 

Signs and Symptoms:

For Male pattern hair loss: Thinning of hair or complete loss of hair at the hairline and at the top of the head.

Female diffuse hair loss: Gradual thinning of hair, especially on the top of the head with the hairline usually intact.

 

Treatment:

For Male pattern hair loss

Medications:

* Minoxidil (Rogaine) (Ioniten)

* Finasteride (Propecia)

For Female diffuse hair loss

Medications:

* Minoxidil (Rogaine) 2% Topical Treatment

-must be used as advised to keep regrown hair

* Spironolactone (Aldactone)

* Cimetidine (Tagamet)

* Cyproterone Acetate

* hormone replacement therapy (HRT)

– estrogen and progesterone

* Oral Contraceptives

* Ketoconazole (Nizoral)

* Proscar (Propecia)

* Cyproterone Acetate with Ethinyloestradiol (Diane 35 & Diane 50)

 

surgery:

* hair transplants

* scalp reduction

* strip or flap grafts

* tissue expansion

 

Gene Therapy

 

Alternative Therapies:

* Nutrition and supplements

– Beta-sitosterol

– saw palmetto

 

 

Name:  alopecia areata

Description: Hair loss due to immune system attack on hair follicles.

Cause:

* increasing age

* Genetics

* Illness

* Some medications like chemotherapy (drugs for cancer treatment)

* Malnutrition

* Autoimmune disease (own immune system attacks hair follicles)

Signs and Symptoms: Broken hairs, or hairs easily removed; one or more round or oval bald patches.

 

Treatment:

Medications:

* Corticosteroids

— usually given by injection in the scalp each month

— In severe cases, corticosteroids may be taken by mouth.

* Topical Minoxidil

* anthralin cream or ointment

* Cortisone pills – for extensive scalp hair loss

* topical immunotherapy

 

surgery:

* hair transplants

* scalp reduction

* strip or flap grafts

* tissue expansion

 

Gene Therapy

 

Alternative Therapies:

* Nutrition and supplements

– Biotin in chard, romaine lettuce, carrots, tomatoes

– zinc aspartate

– trace minerals found in blue-green algae

* Herbs

–  lavender, rosemary, thyme, and cedarwood mixed with jojoba or grapeseed oil

– 3 – 6 drops of essential oil must be added to 1 tablespoon of jojoba or grapeseed oil. Massage into scalp daily.

 

*Massage

– improves circulation in the scalp

 

 

Name:  Alopecia Capitis Totalis

Description: A subtype of alopecia areata, it is the total hair loss on the scalp.

Cause: unclear but is associated with autoimmune disorder

Signs and Symptoms: complete hair loss or 100% hair loss on the scalp

Treatment:

  • Prednisolone
  • Methylprednisolone
  • Steroids
  • Minoxidil
  • Immunotherapy (diphencyprone or DPCP)
  • Methotrexate
  • Nonpharmacologic Methods (use of hairpieces and counselling)

 

 

Name:  Cicatricial Alopecia or Scarring Alopecia

Description: In this type of hair loss, the hair follicles get destroyed and are associated with scarred areas which prevent the hair from growing.

Cause:

* Primary Form:

> immune cells attacking the hair follicles

* Secondary Form:

> severe burn

> Lupus Erythematosus

> bacterial and fungal skin infections

> skin cancer

> radiation therapy

 

Signs and Symptoms:

  • Small ragged patches of hair loss
  • Gradual hair loss
  • Severe itching
  • Burning
  • Pain
  • Affected areas may be:
    • smooth and clean
    • or may have redness
    • scaling
    • increased or decreased pigmentation
    • or may have blisters with fluids or pus
    • physical destruction of hair follicles upon biopsy
    • scar tissue deep in the affected skin
    • presence of inflammation in areas of affected hair follicles
    • presence of inflammatory cells around hair follicles

 

Treatment:

  • corticosteroids (topical creams and injection)
  • antimalarial drugs
  • isotretenoin drugs
  • antibiotics
  • methotrexate
  • tacrolimus
  • cyclosporine
  • thalidomide
  • surgical removal of bald areas
  • hair transplantation of bald patches with healthy hair follicles

 

 

 

Name:  Alopecia Liminaris or Alopecia Marginalis or Traction Alopecia

Description: Hair loss at the hair line.

Cause:

* chronic or prolonged traction and tension of hair at the hair line

* long-term pulling or twisting on the hair caused by:

  1. weaves
  2. braids
  3. extensions
  4. dread locks
  5. corn rows
  6. pony tails

 

Signs and Symptoms:

  • bumps on the scalp
  • pain from the constant pulling of the hair
  • spontaneous breakage of the extensions

 

Treatment:

        (early stage)

  • Change of hairstyle technique can minimize the damage

(advanced stage)

  • Hair transplant

 

 

Name:  Moth-Eaten Alopecia or Syphilitic Alopecia

Description: This hair loss is a characteristic sign of secondary syphilis.

Cause:

* syphilis

Signs and Symptoms:

  • Diffuse-pattern hair loss on the scalp and beard
  • A moth- eaten pattern
  • Small, irregular scattered patches
  • follicular plugging
  • lymphocytic infiltrate
  • melanin clumping
  • mucocutaneous changes associated with secondary syphilis
  • a positive blood test for syphilis

 

Treatment:

  • This type of hair loss resolves within 3 months of penicillin G treatment.

 

 

 

Name:  Symptomatic Alopecia

Description: Hair loss that results from systemic disorders and psychogenic factors.

Cause:

* general ill health

* skin or scalp infection

* nervousness

* stress

* anxiety

* typhoid fever

* anemia

* liver and kidney disease

* malnutrition

* systemic lupus erythematosus

* Sjogren’s syndrome

* acanthosis nigricans

* pneumonia

* meningitis

* influenza

 

Signs and Symptoms:

  • Sparse hair falls out in patche
  • diffuse hair loss in an area

 

Treatment:

  • treat the underlying cause

Name:  Telogen Effluvium

Description: Shedding of telogen hairs which are identified with a small bulb of keratin on the root of the hair. It is a temporary loss of hair.

Cause:

* an illness

* some medications like those given for cancer treatment

* high vitamin A

* retinoids

* giving birth (sudden change in hormone levels at birth)

* trauma (physical trauma such as being in a car crash, and having surgery)

* vaccinations

* crash dieting

* antidepressants

* chronic stress

 

Signs and Symptoms:

  • thinning of scalp hair but with visible hair line
  • change in the number of hair follicles
  • shedding of telogen hairs
  • Scalp hair partially lost
  • Hair loss on the eyebrows
  • Hair loss on the pubic region

Treatment:

  • For short-term TE that can be linked to a trigger like surgery, wait for the follicles to recover of their own accord
  • Treatment of the underlying cause
  • Stress management
  • Dietary supplements
  • Hormone supplements
  • Minoxidil

Name:  Trichotillomania

Description: This is a disorder in which the affected person pulls out the hair from the scalp, eyelashes, eyebrows, pubic area, underarms, beard, chest, legs, or other parts of the body.

Cause:

* Obssessive-compulsive disorder

* psychological problem

Signs and Symptoms:

  • Bald patches
  • Act of hair pulling

Treatment:

  • Treat the underlying cause
  • Stress Counseling with a therapist or psychologist
  • Medical treatment with a psychiatrist
  • Behavioral Therapy
  • Antidepressant
  • Antianxiety medications

 

 

 

Name:  Congenital Alopecia

Description: Hair loss that is associated with developmental defect at birth.

Cause:

* genetic defect

Signs and Symptoms:

  • At birth baby is born with a defective skin at the back of the scalp
  • Poor pattern of hair growth
  • Small skin defect can become a scab and develop into a scar

Treatment:

  • Minoxidil
  • Topical steroids
    • Hydrocortisone
    • Betamethasone
    • Fluocinonide
    • Clobetasol propionate

 

 

Name:  Congenital Hypotrichosis

Description: This is a condition of no hair growth since birth. People with this condition usually have baldness since birth and all throughout their lives.

Cause:

* genetic abnormalities during embryonic development

Signs and Symptoms:

  • physical problems
  • mental abnormalities
  • (According to American Hair Loss Association, 2010)Manifestations of some of the following conditions:
    • Graham-Little syndrome
    • Ofuji syndrome
    • cartilage-hair hypoplasia
    • Jeanselme and Rime hypotrichosis
    • Marie Unna hypotrichosis
    • metaphyseal chondrodysplasia

 

Treatment:

  • hair transplant surgery

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Name:  Alopecia Universalis

Description: This is a subtype of alopecia areata and is the loss of hair on the entire scalp and other areas of the body.

Cause:

* autoimmune disease in which the hair follicles get attacked by the person’s own immune system

* genetics

Signs and Symptoms:

  • complete loss of hair on all hair-bearing areas

 

Treatment:

  • Minoxidil
  • Steroids
  • Immunotherapy
  • Corticosteroid creams
  • Systemic corticosteroids (injections)
  • Counseling

 

 

Name:  Triangular Alopecia

Description: This is a type of hair loss usually apparent from birth and evident during childhood that involves failure to grow hair follicles in the triangular skin patch on the scalp or occurring in a patch of a triangular shape above either one or both the temples.

Cause:

* unclear

* could be genetic

Signs and Symptoms:

  • a bald patch where hair does not grow
  • triangular, oval or lancet-shaped patches in the fronto-temporal area
  • unilateral lesion

Treatment:

  • Surgical hair transplant/Hair Restoration Surgery using Follicular Unit Transplantation
  • Complete excision

 

 

 

 

Name:  Congenital Atrichia

Description: This type of hair loss is a disease in which a person was born with hair but loses all the hair during early childhood and never grows back.

Cause:

* single gene defect

Signs and Symptoms:

  • Hypopigmented whitish streaks on the scalp surface
  • Popular lesions

 

Treatment:

  • Hair transplant